Helminths (worms) – a huge class of parasitic worms that live in humans, animals and plants. Helminths, parasitic worms, feeding on the internal resources of the body "boss" not only weaken the body, but also contribute to the development of other related diseases.
Strangely enough, but almost every second person – the carrier of one of the types of worms and not even aware of it until complications occur or will be conducted an additional examination.
Depending on the climatic zones on different continents are different worms. On the territory of the Russian Federation there are about 20 species of worms.
Also, worms are divided by way of transfer from organism to organism:
When ingested larvae ingested, they move through the body by the bloodstream and deposited in the organs.
Most often, the worms settle in different parts of the intestine.
Classification at the place of settlement of parasites:
The onset of symptoms in the body can be recognized by these symptoms:
The symptoms of the acute stage may manifest on the second day or after 6 months, but often after 2 weeks:
At the transition of the disease into the chronic form, there are such symptoms:
Pinworms – representatives roundworms have a round shape, with a length of about 2 inches. Occur in both adults and children. Settle in the small intestine and develop from larval stage to adult for 2 weeks. Pinworms cause the disease enterobiasis.
Infection of pinworms is manifested by inflammation of the walls of the intestine, disturbed digestion, and toxins worms cause local haemorrhages.
Enterobiosis is manifested in the evening itching in the anus. Itching cause females to lay their eggs. When combing itching eggs get under the nails of a person and, thus, is transferred to the surrounding objects.
To get infected by pinworms is possible not only through contact with common objects with an infected person, but also through the vegetables in the garden (eggs stored in the soil), cockroaches and flies can carry the eggs of worms.
When enterobiasis in women parasites can cause inflammation of the genital organs. Also become inflamed and scratching, which leads to staph.
Ascarids – round worms grow up to 40 centimeters and with a diameter of about 6 inches. The eggs of ascarids in contact with the soil can be stored there for about a year before getting into a favorable environment for development. When roundworm larva enters the host organism and begins to grow, it produces toxins affecting the lungs, liver. The larva travels throughout the body and affects the blood vessels and causes inflammatory lesions. Settles in the intestine and feeds upon its contents. A day can lay several thousand eggs.
Due to its considerable size roundworm in search of food can move into the ducts of the pancreas, bile ducts and liver, cause inflammation of the intestines can get into the gullet and block the airway. Cause such diseases as ascariasis.
The presence of ascarids in the body can be recognized by these symptoms:
Roundworms tend to curl into a ball, thus there is obstruction of the intestine, and as a consequence of the peritonitis.
The main way of infection is dirty hands and stored eggs in the soil. The presence in the body of whipworm trichocephalus leads to and is manifested by symptoms:
The species Trichinella worm with a length of 5 millimeters. Strikes with food, in particular undercooked meat. Settles in the small intestine and there multiplies. The bloodstream the larvae spread throughout the body.
The species Trichinella causes the disease trichinosis with symptoms:
If treatment is not carried out, the symptoms only intensified. Develop an Allergy as hives, rash, gives the complications in respiratory, nervous, cardio-vascular system.
This species of roundworms live in the stomach of dogs and feces the eggs fall on the soil. Externally similar to ascaris parasite, but grows only to 15 inches. Full life-cycle of toxocara is held in the body of the dog, so getting a favourable environment for human, the larvae perish, but have time to hurt. Hit the muscles, liver, lungs, heart, tissues of the eye, the brain, the disease toxocariasis.
The activity of toxocara larvae in the body is manifested by such symptoms:
You can confirm the diagnosis through scraping the affected area of the skin, a blood test for antibodies, liver biopsy.
Cestodes (tape, wide worms) live in the intestine and larvae can spread throughout the body.
A tapeworm reaches 10 meters in length. With cracks on the head is attached to the surface of the intestine. The human body gets from raw freshwater fish as a larva and develops completely within a month. Causes disease difillobotrioz.
Symptomatic of the presence of the parasite in the body appears as follows:
This parasite is nourished by absorption of nutrients to the surface all his considerable body. At the point of attachment broad tapeworm develops necrosis. In Calais appear segments (containing eggs) of the worm and its eggs.
Beef tapeworm (tapeworm) lives in the small intestine and is 7 meters in length. Bovine tapeworm larvae infect man by eating undercooked beef. The larvae are easy to spot in meat because their size is about 5 mm. into the human body, the larva grows for 3 months. Propagated by means of segments, which contain up to 150 thousand larvae. Such segments on the body of the bovine tapeworm about 2 thousand. These segments independently and come out at night from the anus and spread over the bed.
The presence of this worm can cause disease beef tapeworm infection, which is manifested symptoms:
Pork tapeworm can be confused with a bull, but the size of his modest – 2.5 meters. And the number of segments, this parasite is also smaller – about 1 thousand. The worm head has suckers and a proboscis with hooks, which is attached to the thicker of the intestines. The segments no abilities attached to the intestinal wall, so out with the feces.
You can become infected through raw meat and fat. This helminth causes disease shadowy and cysticercosis. Symptomatology depends on the number of worms in the body. A large number of parasites can lead to blockage of the intestine that can be treated only surgically.
Pets (dogs, cats) can share with their human family parasites such as Echinococcus. Causing the disease echinococcosis. The eggs of this helminth attached to the fur of the animal on the street from cal. This tiny worm has only 4 segments.
The parasite gets into the human body via water, unwashed forest berries and summer vegetables, when stroking the animal worm eggs are transferred into the hands of a human, but can also settle in the brain, the bones, the kidneys.
The blood worm larvae get into the lungs, the liver. Settling in to a body, the parasite forms a bubble around which is growing a cyst that's pressing in the process of growth, the organ and disrupts its functional capacity. Inside the cysts are larvae. Squeezing a cyst of the organ can lead to its necrosis.
Symptoms depend on where the parasite is settled, which organ is damaged. Often the cyst can be detected using ultrasound. And related symptoms in the localization in the right lobe of the liver: symptoms of cholecystitis, a pain in my side. If the cyst on the left side of the liver, then there is heartburn, vomiting, belching. With the defeat of the bile ducts jaundice.
Cyst rupture have an allergic reaction up to anaphylactic shock.
A representative of this class of worms is cat Fluke. This type of worms in children is widespread in the district reservoirs. Helminth eggs with the feces fall into the water in which the striking shellfish and fish. Poor heat treatment or insufficient salty fish contribute to the infection of human opisthorchiasis caused by the cat's Fluke.
The bloodstream the parasite is distributed in the bile ducts, liver, pancreas, gall bladder. The acute phase depends on the location of the infection:
Without treatment, a month later, the symptoms weaken, but it means that the disease passed into a chronic form. Worms attached to mucous membranes of the suction device and the point of attachment develops inflammation. With a large number of worms and eggs develop clogged ducts and inflammation, abscesses, organ dysfunction, cirrhosis of the liver.
Shistosoma (blood flukes) person is infected through the pores of the skin through contact with infected fresh water. Are the causative agent of schistosomiasis. Unlike other parasites, Schistosoma live in the venous system, where they reproduce.
This kind of parasites is more common in Africa, South America, Southeast Asia, the Middle East. The length of the worm reaches a size of just 26 millimeters, in the amount of up to 0.6 millimeters.
The symptoms appear as reactions to eggs of helminths:
The symptomatology is slightly different depending on the location of the clusters of schistosoma:
The roundworm Ancylostoma is also common in Africa and East Asia. Is the causative agent of hookworm. Habitat – 12-perstny gut. The length of the worm about 14 millimeters. Fed by nutrients that are produced from the intestinal wall. A person can be infected not only through unwashed vegetables and dirty hands, but also through the skin when working with the earth, walking on the grass barefoot. The parasite through the blood vessels gets to the liver, lungs, heart.
Ankylostoma infection manifests these symptoms:
Hookworm causes complications: hepatitis, ulcer 12 duodenal ulcer, bronchitis, laryngitis, endocarditis. To verify the diagnosis by using blood tests, fluoroscopy, x-ray.
Because the symptoms when infected by different kinds of worms different, established methods of diagnosis. First and foremost, the doctor collects the medical history of the patient. Then blood tests, urine, bile, feces, sputum, skin scrapings and biopsy of internal organs. Also for diagnosis is shown holding ultrasound, MRI, fluoroscopy.